There are no rules to break when you use verb forms or words that end in ing.
Our language only has two participle forms, ed and ing. Because of this, you are going to use a lot of these words in your writing.
However, when we use progressive tenses, or in some cases, the gerund form, they can weaken your writing. Generally, we class simple past and present tense verbs as strong verbs.
The best advice for new writers is to try to replace weak verbs with better alternatives.
Why are ing verbs weak?
When we use present participles as a verb, you always need to add an extra auxiliary or helping verb. These include, is, am, was, were and been.
Look at these simple example sentences.
He was jumping up and down with excitement. (Weak)
He has been jumping up and down with excitement. (Weak)
He jumped up and down with excitement. (Strong)
In the last sentence, the active verb, jump, is the centre of attention. It is not weakened by one or two auxiliary verbs that separate the subject and verb.
We use present, past and future progressive forms a lot. When we speak, we use these ing phrases and words with friends all the time.
But in writing, it is better to re-write them if possible and use a more direct and stronger verb.
David is working every day now.
David works every day now.
Susan was working out every morning.
Susan worked out every morning.
Roger will be starting his new job tomorrow.
Roger starts his new job tomorrow.
Mary has been sleeping for three hours.
Mary slept for three hours.
What about gerunds?
We can’t avoid using gerunds in English. It is a verbal noun form that we use a lot.
There are so many uses for the gerund, and in many cases, it is not possible to replace them.
Gerunds always follow a preposition.
He said hello to everyone after entering the meeting.
They almost always follow any verb of preference.
She likes cooking. He hates washing up.
Then there are certain verbs or words that can only take the gerund form.
He denied stealing the money. So he considered pleading not guilty. But the police had enough proof, so he admitted taking the money.
In these cases, it is not possible to make any changes.
But it is when the gerund is forming a noun phrase or a participial phrase that good editing can help.
I can clearly recall my English teacher in high school. She always put a big red cross with re-write this noted on my essay sentences that had a gerund subject.
Let’s take a simple and quite typical example of using a weak gerund as the subject of a sentence.
Being an author, Jim always enjoys time alone to think.
You can write this sentence in so many better and stronger ways. The reason these sentences are better is that the verb directly follows the subject. It makes it clear that it is Jim, who is an author.
Jim is an author, so he always enjoys time alone to think.
Because Jim is an author, he always enjoys time alone to think.
Since Jim is an author, he always enjoys time alone to think.
These often create distance between the action and the subject.
Rushing to get out of the house in the morning, Mary forgot to take her phone and purse.
Here the real action verb is to rush. But because it is so far away from the subject, it becomes much weaker. It is better to have the subject directly performing the action.
Mary rushed out of the house early in the morning and forgot to take her phone and purse.
Because Mary rushed out of the house early in the morning, she forgot to take her phone and purse.
Mary forgot to take her phone and purse because she rushed out of the house early in the morning.
When Mary rushed out of the house early in the morning, she forgot to take her phone and purse.
We also use the gerund as a noun for activities. In this form, there is often no viable replacement.
Think here about words like writing, shopping, diving, swimming and skiing.
If you try to change these types of gerund words, you could find that your sentence sounds awkward or unnatural.
I went shopping on Saturday.
I shopped on Saturday.
Roger spent all weekend writing articles.
Roger wrote articles all weekend.
In these cases, it is better to stay with the sentence that reads more naturally.
Adjectives that use ing
In general, we use adjectives ending in ing when we describe the object in a sentence.
That looks like an interesting book.
But we use adjectives ending in ed when they are describing the subject.
David is interested in that book.
Because a lot of adjectives have no other form, it is impossible to avoid using them.
However, if you use a thesaurus, you can often find synonyms. To replace interesting, you might use impressive or enjoyable.
Are all ing words weak?
For the question, are ing words weak, there is no simple, straightforward and easy answer.
Yes, some are weak, such as progressive verb forms, and you should replace or re-write them when it is possible.
But many gerunds and adjectives can’t be replaced.
The most important factor to consider is how often you employ ing words. In any word processor, you can use the Find function to check on the frequency.
You can then look at each word or occurrence, and decide if there is a better alternative.
Here is a screenshot of the first paragraph in this article using the Find function.
You can see how easy it is to check each highlighted word and consider a replacement.
If you see that your frequency of use is very high, you probably need to do some editing.
In the example image above, I could make these two changes.
What is wrong with the use of ing words and verbs?
Because of this, you will use a lot of these words when you write.
You want to make your writing as clear and concise as possible.
When you use too many ing words, they tend to dilute your writing.
Are all ing words bad to use? No, they certainly are not, but you should be aware of how many you include in a piece of text.
If you are writing a blog post or article, it is usually a relaxed style, so progressive forms give an informal feel.
But in fiction, you want to be clear and concise in your storytelling. Action verbs are vital and should, for the most part, be strong verbs.
In the end, it is like when you add too much salt to the soup. Don’t overdo it.